Since ancient times, with characteristics of sacred, educational, competitive or military training confrontation, physical training has characterized the motor and character modeling of the civilized human being, forging it in the body and mind.
What did physical activity look like before?
The quest to improve physical performance was very different, by necessity, from that of modern man; however, the principles of those practices, from a biological point of view, are still in agreement with many aspects of physical and motor training today.
As we saw in Carolina Kostner’s article, the story of the figure skater, all sports require diligent sports commitment.
Complete athletic efficiency is evident from the complete balance of the various motor skills when they all converge in the direction of maximum performance and minimum effort, determining what we define as “motor efficiency.”
Currently, the great selectivity of the specific benefits of each sport often leads to an overspecialization of one physical capacity to the detriment of others.
Most of the time in this scenario we tend to neglect the basic motor components that should, instead, lay the fundamental pillars on which to build the solid building of sports performance.
A physical performance requires as a support axis the basic prerogatives that we find in the fundamentals of Functional Training.
We refer to the development of neurosensory and motor skills through which an individual can relate to the environment, in everyday life, or perform in a specific sport.
In personal physical training, in most cases, the professional tends to focus solely and exclusively on a few explicit requests from the client.
This means, for example:
“Focusing attention on the metabolic component, on reducing fat or increasing lean mass, sometimes neglecting postural-functional movement.”
Aspects to take into account for optimal physical performance
The integrity of a fitness program must consider, assess, and improve all the basic motor skills of an individual who has decided to engage in fitness training, regardless of her explicit requests.
This is because the selective persistence of some qualities inevitably leads to the deterioration of other basic abilities.
In fact, it’s precisely your balance that determines motor efficiency, whether you’re the housewife who trains twice a week or the top-tier Olympic athlete.
Certainly, to achieve the goal of the Olympic Games, these abilities must be amplified to the maximum.
Motor skills: conditional and coordinative
Motor skills are classified into conditional and coordinative.
If we are going to categorize these skills we can summarize them in 10 large sections. Let’s see how they are organized.
From an organic-muscular point of view, we group maximum strength, endurance, speed, power and cardiovascular capacity.
From the sensory-motor point of view we will have balance, agility, coordination and precision.
Finally, mobility according to Zaciorskij, Professor of Kinesiology, Department of Kinesiology at Pennsylvania State University:
The term “strength” refers to the ability of the neuromuscular system to overcome or counteract an external load with physical exertion.
A capability that has hybrid characteristics between the two categories. We must consider that from a neurophysiological point of view everything that is movement expresses a force.
All 10 skills, in one way or another, produce a fortress.
Strength, Endurance, Speed
The maximum force is:
the ability of the muscle to express the maximum possible tension with a voluntary contraction.
Resistance, or resistance force, is:
the ability to express high voltages for a relatively long time.
Speed, or fast force, is:
the ability to express high muscle tension in the shortest possible time.
What is meant by power?
Power is understood as the product of force times the speed of muscle shortening: Force x Velocity.
Cardiovascular fitness is considered to be the body’s ability to maintain a sustained pace for a certain period of time.
Balance is defined as the body’s ability to maintain the center of gravity at the base of support, both statically and dynamically.
Agility is the ability to move, change direction and body position quickly and efficiently under control.
Coordination is the ability to unite,
organize and control the various movements of the body at the right times.
Precision can be defined as the ability to converge the action of the motor in a well-defined trajectory.
Finally, mobility is the ability to carry out, respecting the physiologically imposed limits of the joints, muscles and tendon structures, all movements with the greatest range and naturalness possible.
C. Bosch always said:
“Training is an art based on science… and training without evaluation is an itinerary without a destination.”
Referring to this noble and indisputable concept of Professor Carmelo Bosco, we understand the importance of evaluating a subject in terms of his abilities and establishing which are the qualities to be improved and balanced with the others.
Once the weak link has been identified, the trainer can implement the most appropriate strategies aimed at increasing that capacity, in order to match it with the rest.
The balance of the 10 athletic abilities can predispose one to a sporting life that is not only effective but above all efficient, where a high-level athlete, or amateur, can perform to the maximum and at the same time safeguard physical integrity and sports performance.
The speech not only has a sporting value for competitive purposes, in fact it can be easily reported in terms of fitness as a powerful tool to achieve the client’s goals by optimizing their physical-motor resources.
Therefore, we can say that through the:
Goals can be achieved at high levels.